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firpm() - Signal Processing

```firpm designs a linear-phase FIR filter using the Parks-McClellan algorithm [1]. The Parks-McClellan
algorithm uses the Remez exchange algorithm and Chebyshev approximation theory
to design filters with an optimal fit between the desired and actual
frequency responses. The filters are optimal in the sense that the
maximum error between the desired frequency response and the actual
frequency response is minimized. Filters designed this way exhibit
an equiripple behavior in their frequency
responses and are sometimes called equiripple filters. firpm exhibits
discontinuities at the head and tail of its impulse response due to
this equiripple nature.b = firpm(n,f,a) returns
row vector b containing the n+1 coefficients
of the order n FIR filter whose frequency-amplitude
characteristics match those given by vectors f and a. The output filter coefficients (taps) in b obey
the symmetry relation:b(k)=b(n+2−k),    k=1,...,n+1Vectors f and a specify
the frequency-magnitude characteristics of the filter:f is a vector of pairs of normalized
frequency points, specified in the range between 0 and 1, where 1
corresponds to the Nyquist frequency. The frequencies must be in increasing
order.a is a vector containing the desired
amplitudes at the points specified in f. The desired amplitude at frequencies between pairs of points
(f(k), f(k+1))
for k odd is the line segment connecting the points
(f(k), a(k))
and (f(k+1), a(k+1)).The desired amplitude at frequencies between pairs of points
(f(k), f(k+1))
for k even is unspecified. The areas between such
points are transition or "don't care" regions.f and a must
be the same length. The length must be an even number.The relationship between the f and a vectors
in defining a desired frequency response is shown in the illustration
below.
firpm always uses an even filter order for
configurations with even symmetry and a nonzero passband at the Nyquist
frequency. This is because for impulse responses exhibiting even symmetry
and odd orders, the frequency response at the Nyquist frequency is
necessarily 0. If you specify an odd-valued n, firpm increments
it by 1.b = firpm(n,f,a,w) uses
the weights in vector w to weight the fit in each
frequency band. The length of w is half the length
of f and a, so there is exactly
one weight per band.Note

b = firpm(n,f,a,w) is a synonym for b
= firpm(n,f,{@firpmfrf,a},w),  where, @firpmfrf is
the predefined frequency response function handle for firpm.
If desired, you can write your own response function. Use help private/firpmfrf and
see Create Function Handle for more information.b = firpm(n,f,a,'ftype') andb = firpm(n,f,a,w,'ftype') specify
a filter type, where 'ftype' is'hilbert', for linear-phase filters with odd symmetry (type III and type
IV)The output coefficients in b obey the relation b(k) = –b(n + 2 – k), k = 1, ..., n + 1. This class of filters includes the
Hilbert transformer, which has a desired amplitude of 1 across the
entire band.For example, h = firpm(30,[0.1 0.9],[1 1],'hilbert');
designs an approximate FIR Hilbert transformer of length 31.'differentiator', for type III and type IV filters, using a special weighting techniqueFor nonzero amplitude bands, it weights the error by a factor
of 1/f so that the error at low frequencies is
much smaller than at high frequencies. For FIR differentiators, which
have an amplitude characteristic proportional to frequency, these
filters minimize the maximum relative error (the maximum of the ratio
of the error to the desired amplitude).b = firpm(...,{lgrid}) uses
the integer lgrid to control the density of the
frequency grid, which has roughly (lgrid*n)/(2*bw) frequency
points, where bw is the fraction of the total frequency
band interval [0,1] covered by f. Increasing lgrid often
results in filters that more exactly match an equiripple filter, but
that take longer to compute. The default value of 16 is
the minimum value that should be specified for lgrid.
Note that the {lgrid} argument must be a 1-by-1
cell array.[b,err] = firpm(...) returns
the maximum ripple height in err.[b,err,res] = firpm(...) returns
a structure res with the following fields. res.fgridFrequency grid vector used for the filter design optimization
res.desDesired frequency response for each point in res.fgrid
res.wtWeighting for each point in opt.fgrid
res.HActual frequency response for each point in res.fgrid
res.errorError at each point in res.fgrid (res.des-res.H)
res.iextrVector of indices into res.fgrid for
extremal frequencies
res.fextrVector of extremal frequencies
You can also use firpm to write a function
that defines the desired frequency response. The predefined frequency
response function handle for firpm is  @firpmfrf,
which designs a linear-phase FIR filter.b = firpm(n,f,@fresp,w) returns
row vector b containing the n+1 coefficients
of the order n FIR filter whose frequency-amplitude
characteristics best approximate the response returned by function
handle @fresp. The function
is called from within firpm with the following
syntax.[dh,dw] = fresp(n,f,gf,w)
The arguments are similar to those for firpm:n is the filter order.f is the vector of normalized frequency
band edges that appear monotonically between 0 and 1, where 1 is the Nyquist frequency.gf is a vector of grid points that
have been linearly interpolated over each specified frequency band
by firpm. gf determines the
frequency grid at which the response function must be evaluated, and
contains the same data returned by cfirpm in the fgrid field
of the opt structure.w is a vector of real, positive
weights, one per band, used during optimization. w is
optional in the call to firpm; if not specified,
it is set to unity weighting before being passed to fresp.dh and dw are
the desired complex frequency response and band weight vectors, respectively,
evaluated at each frequency in grid gf.b = firpm(n,f,@fresp,w,'ftype') designs
antisymmetric (odd) filters, where 'ftype' is
either 'd' for a differentiator or 'h' for
a Hilbert transformer. If you do not specify an ftype,
a call is made to fresp to determine the
default symmetry property sym. This
call is made using the syntax.sym = fresp('defaults',{n,f,[],w,p1,p2,...})
The arguments n, f, w,
etc., may be used as necessary in determining an appropriate value
for sym, which firpm expects
to be either 'even' or 'odd'.
If fresp does not support this calling
syntax, firpm defaults to even symmetry.```

Syntax

`b = firpm(n,f,a)b = firpm(n,f,a,w)b = firpm(n,f,a,'ftype')b = firpm(n,f,a,w,'ftype')b = firpm(...,{lgrid})[b,err] = firpm(...)[b,err,res] = firpm(...)b = firpm(n,f,@fresp,w)b = firpm(n,f,@fresp,w,'ftype')`

Example

`h = firpm(30,[0.1 0.9],[1 1],'hilbert');`